Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition: What's Going on Inside the Reactor

by Daniel M. Dobkin and Michael K. Zuraw

Kluwer Academic 2003

The book version of this web site tutorial, "Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition", by Daniel M. Dobkin and Michael K. Zuraw, published by Kluwer Academic, is available from Amazon.

The book has most of the content of the web site. In addition, each of the fundamentals chapters contains an extended example section in which the principles discussed are applied to a showerhead and tube reactor. The material was written a while ago, but the fundamentals don’t change, so a lot of what’s there is still valid today (2016). The two applications chapters also provide fairly extensive 'further reading' lists, though that’s a bit dated. The table of contents is reproduced below. We hope you will find the book useful and handy. It is a very nice high-quality printing, though the cover is quite dull, and erroneously treats us as editors rather than authors. These days it seems to be awfully expensive, so if you need a small excerpt rather than the whole thing, and don’t find what you want here in the web site, please contact Dan.

Here’s what you get:

Table of Contents


1. What's Behind the Facade?
2. Generic Reactors and Process Considerations
3. Tube and Showerhead Reactor Examples

Reactors Without Transport

1. What Goes In Must Go Somewhere: Measuring Gases
2. Review: Kinetic Theory
3. The Zero-dimensional Reactor
4. Zero-dimensional Tube and Showerhead Examples

Mass Transport

1. Introduction to transport
2. Convection and Diffusion
3. Diffusion: Physics and Math
4. Fluid Flow and Convective Transport
5. When Flows Matter: the Knudsen Number
6. Tube and Showerhead Examples
7. On to Phonons

Heat Transport

1. What is Heat (Energy) Transport?
2. Heat Conduction and Diffusion
3. Convective Heat Transfer Made (very) Simple
4. Natural Convection
5. Radiative Heat Transfer
6. Temperature Measurement
7. Tube and Showerhead Examples

Chemistry for CVD

1. What does the "C" Stand For Anyway?
2. Volatility: The "V" in CVD
3. Equilibrium: Where things Are Going (but not how fast they get there)
4. Kinetics: The Slowest Step Wins
5. Real Precursors for Real films
6. Tube Reactor Example
7. A Few Final Remarks

Gas Discharge Plasmas For CVD

1. Plasma Discharges: An Instant Review
2. The Low-Pressure Cold-Plasma State
3. Key Parameters For Capacitive Plasma Behavior
4. Alternative Excitation Methods
5. Plasmas for Deposition
6. Plasma Damage
7. Technical Details
8. ONGOING EXAMPLE: Parallel Plate Plasma Reactor
9. A Remark on Computational Tools

CVD Films

1. Why CVD?
2. Silicon dioxide
3. Silicon Nitride
4. Tantalum Pentoxide
5. Metal Deposition by CVD
6. Concluding Remarks

CVD Reactors

1. CVD Reactor configurations
2. Tube reactors
3. Showerhead Reactors
4. High Density Plasma Reactors
5. Injector-based Atmospheric Pressure Reactors
6. Reactor Conclusions

Thanks for your consideration.

January 2012:  OOOPS!  There's an error in the computations on page 90 and 91 (chuck-wafer-showerhead heat transport).  The accommodation flux of 0.15 W/cm2 is multiplied by the wafer area for a 150 mm wafer rather than for a 200 mm wafer.  (This seems silly now, but back when the text was written 150 mm wafers were still quite common!)  As a result, the flux balances are wrong, and so are the estimates of wafer temperature.  The correct flux on page 90 appears to be 48 rather than 27 Watts, and on page 91 the wafer temperature should be about 489 °C, with the corresponding fluxes being:
accomodation flux to wafer              40.5 Watts
radiation flux  to wafer                     41.5 Watts
radiation flux from wafer                  54.3 Watts
conduction from wafer                      28 Watts
net flux:  0

The temperature of the wafer with a chuck emissivity of 0.9 becomes about 565 °C instead of 540 °C as reported in the book.  Thanks to Palash Apte of Raytheon for pointing this out. 

Note also that the temperature used in computing the accommodation flux is the average of the chuck and wafer temperature.  This is an estimate used to avoiding trying to account for the actual distribution of velocities and angles of the molecules between the two surfaces. 

It's sobering that it took this long for someone to report the error.  I guess that means that either:
  • no one actually reads the book OR
  • no one pays any attention to the examples OR
  • the book is not funny enough to be worth fixing.
Maybe I should add the joke about the oxymoron -- a reagent too stupid to keep track of its electrons.